The Identifying Montana’s African American Heritage Places Project aims to provide academic, place-based historical resources as well as new scholarship. Place-based history pivots the study of the past around existing structures, neighborhoods, sites, or environments. This project has produced a number of original, place-based resources that professional historians and casual viewers alike will find enlightening and easy to use.
Mapping Historic Neighborhoods
We mapped the neighborhoods and houses of African Americans in eight Montana cities during the twentieth century. Using the 1910 and 1930 Federal Censuses and Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps from the historical period, we recorded the locations of verifiable African American homes and residences along with some information about those who called those places home.
Property Record Forms
Historic Property Record Forms are official documents which provide a basic history of a particular property. The forms include legal locations, architectural descriptions, histories, maps, and photographs. This project compiled 50 property records for buildings associated with Montana’s early African American history. Completing property record forms is often a first step towards listing a building on the National Register of Historic Places.
The National Register of Historic Places
Properties in the National Register have been researched at the highest level, and placed within the greater historical context of their community, city, state, and region. Montana has five properties listed in the National Register that garner their significance from the history of the African American community. Two additional nominations, as well as a Multiple Properties Documentation form relaying the narrative of the city’s early black residents, have been prepared for the city of Helena.
Explore map-based, interactive narratives about Montana’s black communities via three informative story maps. Our statewide map highlights 25 properties in eleven cities across Montana. Our Helena map offers insight to 27 properties in that city, and our Driver Family map traces the history of one family based in Anaconda, from the late 19th through the 20th century.
Montana In The Green Book
Between 1936 and 1967, Victor H. Green & Company published The Negro Motorist Green Book, which offered listings of lodgings, restaurants, service stations, and recreation opportunities for African American travelers. The first two issues – 1936 and 1937 – limited listings to New York state. By 1939, however, the book aided travelers in places across the country. That year, the only Montana entry was that of Mrs. M. Stitt at 204 South Park in Helena, whose two-story boarding house offered “tourist home” accommodations. Mrs. Stitt died in 1939, but her family continued to advertise under her name in the Green Book through 1951. In 1956 and 1957, through the last issue in mid-1960s, more Montana lodgings advertised in the Green Book, including places in Billings, Butte, Livingston, Missoula, and East Glacier. Montana hotels’ increased interest in the Green Book after 1955 coincides with the passage of an accommodations non-discrimination law that passed the Montana legislature that year. At the national level, the 1964 Civil Rights Act, at least in theory, made the Green Book unnecessary. The publication ended shortly thereafter.
Follow this link to a map that includes information about each of the Montana establishments listed in the Green Book.
For a spreadsheet of Montana listings in the
Green Book, click here.
material is based upon work assisted by grants from the Department of the
Interior, National Park Service and the Montana History Foundation. Any
opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this
material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of
the Department of the Interior nor the Montana History Foundation.