Montana’s African American Heritage Resources

MHS Collections

Bibliography


Museum 1979.24.03-04 Doll-sized water pitcher & teacup given to Cascade girl by "Colored Mamy Kimble" [sic] Doll-sized ceramic water pitcher & teacup given to Hebe Roberts (b. 1890, later Mrs. Charles Sheridan, Great Falls), note accompanying objects: "These are from the Philippine Islands. Given to me by a Colored Mamy Kimble when I was twelve years old 1903 Hebe Roberts Sheridan."
Museum 1979.39.01 1923 "Third Biennial Convention of the Northwestern Federation of Colored Women's Clubs Los Angeles" ribbon Rectangular tri-colored ribbon with notched bottom, black, white & yellow vertical stripes with "THIRD BIENNIAL CONVENTION OF THE NORTHWESTERN FEDERATION OF COLORED WOMENS CLUBS JULY 16-19 1923 LOS ANGELES, CALIF." stamped in gold.
Museum 1979.39.04 1929 "Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs" Helena ribbon Rectangular mustard-colored ribbon with "Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs JULY 17, 18, 19 1929 HELENA" stamped in black.
Museum 1979.39.05 1948 "27th Anniversary Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs" Butte ribbon Rectangular yellow ribbon with "27th Anniversary MONTANA FEDERATION OF COLORED WOMEN'S CLUBS Butte JULY 27-28 1948" stamped in navy.
Museum 1982.22.01-.73 Taylor Gordon & Rose Gordon effects & ephemera Seventy-three objects dating from early to mid 20th century & associated with Rose Gordon (1883-1968) & her brother Emmanuel Taylor Gordon (1893-1971) accession comprised of advertising trade artifacts & ephemera such as store tokens, key chains, pens, & trade cards associated with White Sulphur Springs businesses, including Rose's restaurant (Rose's Cafe) & physio-therapy business; handkerchiefs, calculators, wallet, purse, pennant, shoe buffer, blotter, booklets, etc.
Museum 1983.51.01 a-d "Dinah" black stuffed doll given to Helena girl Stuffed black doll, "Dinah", wearing kerchief, printed cotton dress, drawers, petticoat & glass bead necklace. Given to Lucy Catherine Young (1907-??), 24 South Benton, Helena on her first birthday by her grandmother in St. Louis, MO.
Museum 1987.101 Broadsides & tickets from St. James AME, Helena Handbill and ticket to "Opossum Dinner" sponsored by the St. James A.M.E. church, 1895 and 1896.
Museum 1989.101 Greetings card and calendar from Emmanuel Taylor Gordon Papers 80 greeting cards & calendar transferred from Emmanuel Taylor Gordon Papers.
Museum 1990.28.1 Emancipation Day exercises with "Helena Colored Band" handbill Rectangular paper handbill program printed at top: "Emancipation Day Exercises August 4, 1908 by The Helena Colored Band Programme [listing of events parade, dashes, running broad jump, watermelon eating contest, "fat man's race" & their times], plus band concert, orations by Eugene Clark & Rev. W.T. Osborne, baseball game, band concert & Grand Prize Cake Walk, dancing, etc. also listing of arrangements, amusements & refreshments committee members. Printed at bottom: "THE BARBECUED MEATS CONSISTING OF BEEF, MUTTON & PORK, WILL BE SERVED FROM 11 A.M. TO 10 P.M."
Museum 1999.33.01

1922 "Montana Federation of Negro Women's Clubs Montana" Helena delegate badge & ribbon Delegate's badge & ribbon comprised of rectangular celluloid (est.) "DELEGATE" badge surrounded by gold-colored border, below hangs a royal blue satin (est.) ribbon with abraded gold text: "MONTANA FEDERATION OF Negro Women's [sic] CLUBS MONTANA July 31-Aug.1-2 [sic] 1922 HELENA", bottom is unraveling.
Museum 1999.33.02 1924 "14th Biennial National Association of Colored Women" Chicago ribbon
Museum 1999.33.03 1926 "6th Annual Convention Montana Federation of Negro Women's Clubs" Butte ribbon Rectangular lavender ribbon with "6TH ANNUAL CONVENTION Montana Federation OF Negro Women's Clubs June 15-16-17-18 1926 Butte, Mont." printed in green.
Museum 1999.33.04 1926 "Puget Sound Conference of the AME Church" Helena ribbon Rectangular dark green ribbon with "ANNUAL SESSION SPOKANE DISTRICT Puget Sound Conference of the A.M.E. Church S. School, A.C.E.L. [A.C.E. League] WOMEN'S M. AND JR. M. CONVENTION Helena, Montana May 25, 26 and 27 1926" printed in silver.
Museum 1999.33.05

1947 "26th Annual Montana Federation of Negro Women's Clubs" Anaconda ribbon Rectangular ribbon comprised of 3 sections: the bottom is a length of yellow grosgrain ribbon to which is safety-pinned a length of brown grosgrain ribbon, a royal blue satin ribbon with "Twenty Sixth Annual Convention MONTANA FEDERATION OF NEGRO WOMEN'S CLUBS ANACONDA, MONTANA JULY 16-17 1947" in gold, notched at bottom.
Museum 1999.33.06 1951 "30th Annual Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs" Great Falls ribbon Rectangular yellow ribbon with "30th Annual CONVENTION [printed vertically] Montana Federation of COLORED WOMEN'S CLUBS July 16-18, 1951 Great Falls Montana" in blue.
Museum 1999.33.07 1955 "34th Annual Montana State Federation of Colored Women's Clubs" Great Falls ribbon Rectangular yellow satin (est.) ribbon with "34th ANNUAL CONVENTION MONTANA STATE FEDERATION OF COLORED WOMEN'S CLUBS JULY 17-18-19, 1955-- GREAT FALLS" in blue.
Museum 1999.33.08

1952 "31st Annual Mont. Fed. Colored Women's Clubs" Butte ribbon Rectangular yellow ribbon with "31st.Annual Conv. Mont. Fed. [Montana Federation] COLORED WOMEN'S CLUBS JULY, 23-25 Butte", 1956, in blue ink.
Museum 1999.33.09

1956 "35th Annual Montana State Federation of Colored Women's Clubs" Butte ribbon Rectangular ribbon with badge, latter is plastic sleeve with paper insert reading "Welcome to BUTTE MRS. ALMA JACOBS GREAT FALLS [sic], MONT", ribbon is rectangular yellow satin (est.) with 35thAnnualConvMONTANA STATE FEDERATION of COLORED WOMEN'S CLUBS JULY 15-16, 1956 Butte" in navy ink.
Museum 1999.33.10

1956 "35th Annual Montana State Federation of Colored Women's Clubs" Butte ribbon Rectangular ribbon with badge, latter is plastic sleeve with paper insert reading "Welcome to BUTTE MRS. MAXINE HOWARD HELENA, MONT", ribbon is rectangular yellow satin (est.) with 35th Annual Conv. MONTANA STATE FEDERATION of COLORED WOMEN'S CLUBS JULY 15-16, 1956 Butte" in navy ink.
Museum 1999.33.11 1957 "8th Biennial National Association of Colored women's Clubs, Inc." Great Falls ribbon  
Museum 1999.33.12 1959 "38th Annual State Federation of Colored Women's Clubs" Great Falls ribbon  
Museum 1999.33.13 1961 "40th Anniversary Montana State Federation of Colored Women's Clubs" Helena ribbon Rectangular royal blue satin (est.) ribbon with "MONTANA STATE FEDERATION OF COLORED WOMEN'S CLUBS 40th Anniversary HELENA June 25-26, 1961" in gold.
Museum 1999.33.14 1967 "46th Year Montana State Federation of Colored Women's Clubs" Great Falls ribbon Rectangular yellow satin (est.) ribbon with "MONTANA STATE FEDERATION OF COLORED WOMEN'S CLUBS 46TH YEAR GREAT FALLS June 18, 19 & 20 1967" in blue.
Museum X1909.01 "York" watercolor by Charles M. Russell Watercolor by Charles M. Russell given by the artist to MHS depicts William Clark's African-American slave, York, in a Hidatsa lodge where, as ethnologist John C. Ewers writes: "...one of their [i.e., Hidatsa] leaders touched his moistened finger to York's skin expecting that this black color might rub off...York's appearance must have been derived entirely from Russell's imagination, for no physical description of this man is known to have been published until after Russell's death [1926]. And it is suggested that York was a fat man, rather than the tall & rangy fellow the artist portrayed." Another remembrance of York by Missouri River trader Pierre Antoine Tabeau, who met the expedition, possibly contradicts Clark, as the former describes York as "a large, fine man, black as a bear..." Other primary sources note York "was of 'very large size,' had extraordinary 'powers Strength &c.,' [sic] & moved with such agility when he danced that the Indians were astonished 'So large a man should be active.'"
Research Center The Colored citizen. (Helena, Mont.) sn84036198 Digitized, keyword-searchable newspaper "It cannot be denied that our people, through force of circumstance, occupy a peculiar status in this country. We are not thoroughly known. Our better qualities are not presented fairly to the public…" [J.P. Ball, Jr., editor] The complete run (Sep-Nov 1894)of this African American newspaper is available online at Chronicling America.
Research Center The New Age. (Butte, Mont.)
sn84036148
Digitized, keyword-searchable newspaper A complete run Photographic 3/4 profile portrait of musician "Blind Tom" handwritten on recto], African-American man with close-cropped hair, eyes closed, wearing white dress shirt with black bow tie, stud button, vest, & suit coat with top button buttoned. On photo's verso is handwritten in same longhand: "born in Columbus Georgia For many years managed by Col. John J. Bethuneson of Blind Tom's Old Master Present Manager Dell M. Willis Ming's Opera House Helena Montana Friday August 24th 1894." He likely performed at the Ming Opera House while on tour but was not a Montana resident. See Notes field for biographical info.
Research Center-Photo Archives 941-064 Group photograph of white men in blackface, Big Timber, 1894-1899 Photograph of 10 men in blackface seated in semi-circle chairs on stage, two men at both ends wear oversized bowties & shoes with soles painted: "CRAPS 7 COME 11" & "ONE OF STUBBS [sic] STEAKS", man at center of photo, upstage, is not in blackface & wears top hat. Proscenium & arch are decorated with stars (poss. in red, white & blue) & decorative small flags, rolled up backdrop with business names ("FREIMAN THE...BUSHA & BAILEYFINE CIGARS..." etc.), prob. 1894-1899. 0s.
Research Center-Photo Archives 941-173 Photographic portrait of S.E. Bickford [white husband of African-American Sarah Sallie Bickford], Virginia City, 1890s Photographic portrait of S.E. (Stephen) Bickford (b. 1835, Maine-d. 1900, Virginia City, MT) white husband of African-American Sarah (Sallie E.) Gammon Brown Bickford, Virginia City, 1890s.
Research Center-Photo Archives 941-192 Photographic portrait of servant assistant William Woodcock (with Alexander C. Botkin), ca. 1900 Full length view of Montana politician Alexander C. Botkin sitting in wheelchair and African-American man identified as William Woodcock.
Research Center-Photo Archives 942-178 Photographic print of Mary Fields, Cascade, about 1890-1914 3/4 length view photograph of Mary Fields (1832-1914), African-American woman who was a stagecoach driver, Cascade, MT, ca. 1890s-1914.
Research Center-Photo Archives 942-968 Photographic portrait of Mrs. Sarah Irvin(e), Tacoma, ca. 1900 Full-length studio photographic portrait of African-American Sarah Irvin(e) (b. 1880, wife of Robert Irvine) who wears a dress with striped skirt (est.), a jacket trimmed in jet (est.) Her right hand, with a large bracelet, holds the stirrup handle of an umbrella. Her hair gently pulled back with a fullness on the top, Tacoma, prob. very late 1890s-1902.
Research Center-Photo Archives 944-366 Photographic print of Alice Pleasant ("Ma Plas") in front of her Home Cafe, Havre, prob. 1910-1920 Photographic print of Alice Pleasant ("Ma Plas"), an elderly African-American woman "came in the Fort Assiniboine days, her husband a soldier, owned the Home Cafe", close-up view of her with "Home Cafe" painted sign on clapboard behind her right shoulder, Havre, about 1910-1920.
Research Center-Photo Archives 944-585 Photographic print of Millie Ringold in front of log buildings, Yogo, ca. 1904 Photographic print of Millie Ringold African American resident & mining prospector in Yogo near Lewistown, standing before log buildings, her hand on a fence or picket. Mounted to an album [est.] page reading "Aunt Milly [sic] Ringold, once a slave. R.I.P." She wears a hat (poss. a man's), striped skirt, & an 1880s (est.) bodice jacket, Yogo, about 1900.
Research Center-Photo Archives 944-586

Photographic print of Millie Ringold at Weatherwax Mine, Utica, ca. 1904 Photographic print of African American prospector Millie Ringold at the Weatherwax Mine, Utica, seated on stool or wood stand, she wears a dusty long skirt, white long-sleeved shirt with tied bow at collar, & hat with small brim, walking stick is in her right hand. In background are timbered mountains & hills, waterwheel & stamp mill (est.) behind her; Utica, ca. 1904.
Research Center-Photo Archives 945-007 Photographic print of John Smith (or Augustus Titus?), Gallatin County, ca. 1890 "John Smith old slave of the Cockrell family of Gallatin County" [on verso] seated in a wicker wheelchair, ca. 1890. See Notes field for discussion of this subject's name which might be Augustus Titus.
Research Center-Photo Archives 945-008 Photographic print of Captain John Smith, Helena, 1891 Photographic print of older African-American male with eyeglasses & beard standing with cane in front of a brick building on State Street with white picket fence in Helena, MT, 1891. Handwritten on verso is: "Capt. John Smith About 80 years old Familiar Character [sic] in Helena, Montana 1891"
Research Center-Photo Archives 945-134 Photographic print of John Oglesby holding "Meloy's" Dan Patch's reins, Townsend, 1908 Photographic print shows John Oglesby "colored horseman" holding reins of "Meloy's" [sic] Dan Patch, a harness racing horse (named after what could be the sports world's first superstar) who was owned by the Meloy family, Townsend, MT, 1908. See Notes field for information on the original Dan Patch & laborer John Oglesby (b. ca. 1857, SC)
Research Center-Photo Archives 945-159 Photographic print of US Representative Montana Tom Stout with African-American men, Greenville, MS, 1913-1917 Photographic print of white US Representative Tom Stout (Democrat, Lewistown, MT) wearing fedora, white shirt & dark tie, overcoat standing with two other white men (possibly other Congressmen) in crowd of mostly African-American men, standing & sitting, all wearing hats (including one in the background wearing his at a snappy angle), African-American man seated before Stout plays guitar, Greenville, MS, 1913-1917.
Research Center-Photo Archives 946-124

Photographic print of African-American children at Garfield School, Butte, 1897 Group photograph of three unidentified African-American elementary school students (2 boys, one in lacy collar) and one girl in the second, third & fourth rows, respectively, with their white classmates and teachers at Garfield School, Butte, 1897.
Research Center-Photo Archives 946-932

Unidentified African-American female servant with broom at Ft. Assiniboine, prob. 1880s Photograph of white men & women on building-wide porch of mansard-roofed married officers' quarters & unidentified African-American female servant wearing dark dress, white knee-length apron with broom in her right hand standing on the ground in front of the porch, prob. 1880s
Research Center-Photo Archives 947-226 Photographic print of African-American 10th Regiment Cavalry parade at Fort Custer, 1892-1896 Photographic print of the 10th Regiment Cavalry "Buffalo Soldiers" in formation at parade ground, gambrel-roofed two story houses (est.) in background, Fort Custer near the Yellowstone River, prob. 1892-1896.
Research Center-Photo Archives 947-273 Group photograph of US Army signal class with two African-American members, Ft. Keogh, 1892 Group photograph of 20-soldier US Army "signal class", men dressed in tunics, pants & forage caps, two African-American soldiers are at the right end of the first & second rows, one kneeling with his hands crossed & the second standing, his arms at his side, Ft. Keogh, 1892.
Research Center-Photo Archives 947-274 Group photograph of US Army scholars at "post school", with three African-American members, Ft. Keogh, 1892 Group photograph of 34-soldier US Army "post school" class standing on porch of 2 story clapboard building, men dressed in tunics, pants & forage caps, two African-American soldiers are in the back row at the center & the third is in the back row at the right (next to white soldier with arms akimbo), also dog at extreme right, second row, Ft. Keogh, 1892.
Research Center-Photo Archives

 

947-276 Group photograph of children at post school, Ft. Keogh, 1891 Group photograph of approximately 26 children & schoolteacher standing in front of chinked & notched wooden schoolhouse with gable roof & 6 over 6 windows flanking door at center; five African-American girls & boys of varying age (approximately 6-12 years) pose with white classmates in scattered grouping, Ft. Keogh, 1891.
Research Center-Photo Archives 947-340 Photographic print of African-American soldiers at Ft. Maginnis, 1888 Photograph of horses hitched to field picket line with African American soldiers standing next to them near the stockade at Fort Maginnis, M.T., 1888.
Research Center-Photo Archives 947-347 Photographic print of African-American 25th Infantry on parade at Ft. Missoula, 1895 Photograph of "U.S. Signal Corps...a battalion of the 25th Infantry on parade" at Ft. Missoula, 1895.
Research Center-Photo Archives 947-373 Photographic print of African-American 25th Infantry soldier on boardwalk at Ft. Shaw, 1889 Photograph depicts African American 25th Infantry soldier in dress uniform (est.) standing on tree-lined boardwalk in front of Ft. Shaw officer's quarters, with unidentified white boy & 2 girls, dog lies at the children's feet; at left standing in picket fence gateway is another white boy & woman, all are stylishly dressed & wear hats, Ft. Shaw, 1889.
Research Center-Photo Archives 947-374 Photographic print of African-American 25th Infantry battalion at Fort Shaw Photograph of a battalion of the African American 25th Infantry at Ft. Shaw, MT, 1890-1891.
Research Center-Photo Archives 947-375 Group photograph of African-American 25th Infantry (partial company) Ft. Shaw, 1890 Group photograph of 20 African-American soldiers standing at attention in single line, dress uniform with Prussian style headwear, white gloves, & arms; in background is clapboard, gable-roofed single story building with 3 trees, Ft. Shaw, 1890.
Research Center-Photo Archives 947-376 Photographic print of African-American 25th Infantry enlisted men's barracks interior, Ft. Shaw, 1888-1901 Photograph of barracks interior with beds lined against left wall from which framed photos or pictures hang tilting, footlockers at the end of each bed, windows, kerosene lighting hangs from raftered ceiling, wood stove at center of wall on right, chairs, etc. Ft. Shaw, 1888-1901.
Research Center-Photo Archives 947-828 Group photograph of Great Falls "Electrics" professional Pioneer League baseball team including African American pitcher Armando Suarez, 1953. Group photograph of 17-player Pioneer League baseball team, the Great Falls "Electrics", in light-colored uniforms with "GREAT FALLS" appliquéd in arch on tops, "GF" monogram on baseball hats. African American pitcher Armando Suarez at center of photograph, 1953.
Research Center-Photo Archives 948-336 African American boy or boy in blackface in shower bathtub float, Elks' Convention, Havre, 1924. Photographic print of unidentified, shirtless African American boy (or possibly white boy in Blackface) sitting in cast-iron tub with working showerhead above, his right elbow is crooked with his hand near his chin; given elevation of the bathtub & "Elk's Convention" attribution, the tub must be on a parade float. In background is columned brick building, Havre, 1924.
Research Center-Photo Archives 948-411 Photographic print of African-American Havre High School track team member Smallwood Goff, 1915 Group photograph of 1915 Havre High School boys' track team comprised of white coach & 6 members, including African-American Smallwood Goff (b. Virginia, 1897), third from right, team is dressed in shorts & tank-type shirts with "HAVRE" across chest, all stand with hands behind their back.
Research Center-Photo Archives 948-464 Stag party with African-American male guest, Havre, about 1915 Group photograph of 12 men at stag party with crepe bell hanging at center, draperies & board displaying photographs & memorabilia (est.) in background; at center under bell is unidentified portly middle-aged African-American man wearing light shirt, dark pants & holding cigar in his right hand, other (white) men in photograph also hold cigars & are dressed in their shirtsleeves, bowties & vests, second man in upper right standing between two white men might also be African-American; Havre, about 1915.
Research Center-Photo Archives 949-463 Group photograph of students, including unidentified African American children, Missoula Central Grade School, 1895-1896 Group photograph of 7th grade boys & girls, includes one African-American boy in front row & one African-American girl in the fourth row, students are assembled on steps in front of a brick schoolhouse with 2 over 2 light windows, Missoula Central Grade School, 1895-1896.
Research Center-Photo Archives 950-006, 950-007 Photographs of Claude Adams, Montana State Prison prisoner before/after intake process, ca. 1900 Photographic print 950-006 shows Claude Adams in civilian clothes and hairstyle prior to his admission to Montana State Prison; 950-007 depicts Adams with a regulation haircut and in prison uniform, ca. 1900
Research Center-Photo Archives 950-050 Photographic print of Montana State Prison Band with African American member, 1909 Group photograph of the Montana State Prison Band & its civilian director, approximately 40 members in band uniforms, seated & standing in prison yard with brick buildings & stone walls, in back row to right of center is unidentified sole African American band member holding pair of drumsticks up beneath his chin, second from the right.
Research Center-Photo Archives 950-179 Photographic print of African-American Boston boxer Sandy Saddler playfully sparring after Saddler-Kenny Davis fight in Butte, 1955 Photographic print of two boxers & referee in suits staging mock sparring in ring, white Butte boxer Sonny O'Day and African-American Boston featherweight Joseph " Sandy" Saddler play around after Saddler- Kenny Davis fight in Butte, April 5, 1955.
Research Center-Photo Archives 950-815 Photographic print of "N**** Bob" Saloon, Jordan, 1896-1898 Photograph of small log building with 2 over 2 windows flanking door at center, painted sign running width of building reads: "The [caricature of African-American man wearing cap] Bob Saloon Golden Grain Belt Beers". Five men stand and one man is mounted on horseback in front of the so-called "N****" Bob saloon. There is another saddle horse to the left of the mounted rider being held by a cowboy wearing a hat, white shirt, dark vest and chaps. There is a team of four horses standing to the left of the saloon. A wooden ladder also leans on the left side of the saloon. A pole corral can be seen in the extreme left side of the photo. Named the "N**** Bob" Saloon by locals, Jordan, 1896-1898.
Research Center-Photo Archives

 

951-484

Photographic print of James Dorsey & Mrs. Dorsey, U of M Distinguished Service Award ceremony, Missoula, 1963 Photograph of African-American James Dorsey at University of Montana's Distinguished Service Award wearing dark suit, white shirt & dark tie, speaking into microphone on stand on steps of Main Hall (est.), behind him is unidentified man & to one side is Mrs. James Dorsey in medium-colored wool (est.) suit with dark coat, glasses & white gloves; to her right are 3 white men in suits listening to Dorsey, Missoula, 1963.
Research Center-Photo Archives 951-485 Photographic print of James Dorsey, U of M Distinguished Service Award ceremony, Missoula, 1963 Photograph of African-American James Dorsey at University of Montana's Distinguished Service Award wearing dark suit, white shirt & dark tie, standing in hallway (poss. in Main Hall) with white men in suits, left to right: Morris McCollum, Vern Hoagland, Dorsey, & Alva Baird, Missoula, 1963.
Research Center-Photo Archives

 

953-137

Photographic print of barber J.E.W. Clark & others standing in front of Broadway Fish Market Helena, 1889 Photographic print of 3 clapboard stores on Broadway Street, left to right: store with ice cream sign in front of it, at center is Broadway Fish Market, &, at right, Bradley & Lalonde [jewelers]. A group of 4 men stand in front of fish market, man standing on the right in the group & wearing light-colored jacket is African-American barber, Joe E.W. Clark [see Notes]. At left, is a two-horse team hitched to a delivery (est.) wagon, Helena, MT, Thanksgiving Day, 27 November 1889.
Research Center-Photo Archives

 

957-375 Photographic portrait of unidentified African-American woman, prob. 1897-1900 Studio portrait of young African-American woman with hair on top of head, wearing round framed glasses, dress with dark high "officer's" collar, white blouse/shirt/waist with pleated yoke, jacket in dark color with contrasting rick-rack (est.) & keyhole front, no location, prob. 1897-1900.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-376 Photographic portrait of unidentified African-American man, Helena, 1888-1889 Studio portrait of a young African-American man standing & wearing dark military-style long-tailed tunic with 3 vertical rows of brass (est.) buttons, "cuffs" of appliquéd contrasting material, light colored pants. His right elbow (with rings on his ring finger & pinky) rests on a pedestal with a sculpture of a girl; his left hand on his front pocket. His right leg is crossed over his left with the shoe toe of his boot resting on the studio carpet. He is wearing a short brimmed military cap. Helena, prob. 1888-1889, based on clothing, photographer's career & "M.T." [Montana Terr.] stamp on mount.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-377 Photographic portrait of unidentified African-American woman, Helena, 1888-1889 Vintage copyprint on "R.H. Beckwith. Helena, M.T." mount made from original carte de visite with "J.H. Smith 769 Broad St., Newark, NJ" legend on mount. Portrait of unidentified young African-American woman, poss. an adolescent, with straightened hair flattened & resembling marcel waves, tiny hat or hair ornament with crimped edges is sat on top of her head. She wears a dark dress with an oversized white collar & pleated sash over her right shoulder, wears a heavy gold (est.) chain from which is suspended an oval locket or pendant. [Original carte de visite has same cat. no.],
Research Center-Photo Archives

 

957-378 Photographic portrait of unidentified African-American woman, Helena or Bozeman, ca. 1889 Photographic portrait of unidentified young African-American woman with gently curled hair & bangs, shiny hoop earrings, dark-colored moiré dress with ruched (est.) collar & very oversized floral ornament below collar & partially covering bodice, ca. 1889.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-379 Photographic portrait of unidentified African-American woman, Helena, 1886-1888 Photographic portrait of unidentified young African-American woman with hair in flat topknot & frizzled bangs, she wears a dark-colored dress with a tunic-type collar closed with a knotted brooch, bodice is ornamented with jet or beads in floral patterns down the front, sleeves & armhole seams decorated similarly, Helena, prob. 1886-1888.
Research Center-Photo Archives

 

957-380 Photographic portrait of unidentified African-American man, Helena, 1886-1888 Photographic portrait of unidentified young African-American man with very short, waved hair & large, tapering mustache. He wears dark-colored suit with striped, piped shawl-type collar, white dress shirt with pointed collar, & a light & dark striped tie pulled to his left to reveal a stud, coat pocket holds a folded pocket square. Watch fob with bottle-shaped fob attached to top of vest. Helena, 1886-1888.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-381 Photographic portrait of unidentified African-American man, Helena, late 1880s Photographic portrait of an unidentified young African-American man, with receding hairline, very closely shaved, wide mustache & wearing a dark, striped dress suit, standing collar white shirt & cravat with figured pattern adorned with a diamond-shaped, multi-stone pin. Helena, prob. late 1880s.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-382 Photographic portrait of unidentified African-American woman, Helena, prob. 1896 Photographic portrait of an unidentified young African-American woman wearing a multi-colored (est.) striped satin (est.) bodice with high "officer's" collar, oversized upper sleeves, yoke is V-shaped; her bangs are loosely curled & she wears a ribbon at back which matches bodice fabric. Helena, about 1896.
Research Center-Photo Archives

 

957-383 Photographic portrait of unidentified African-American adolescent girl, Helena, about 1895 Photographic portrait of young, possibly adolescent, unidentified African-American woman with very short hair (prob. pulled back) & drop earrings, her bodice of a medium dark heavy fabric has oversized upper sleeves at shoulders, pleated front & the tunic-type collar has a brooch at center. Helena, about 1895.
Research Center-Photo Archives

957-384

Photographic portrait of unidentified African-American man, Livingston, 1884-1889 Photographic studio portrait of unidentified African-American man with wide, tapered mustache, poss. in his 30s (est.) wearing a porkpie-type hat set at angle, & dark suit with dark vest which nearly completely covers striped shirt, his patterned necktie is loosely-tied. His left hand rests on a bear (est.) skin draped over a chair. His right hand rests on his hip. His left leg is crossed over his right leg and his left shoe toe rests on the carpet; the heel of his right shoe appears to have dried mud. Mount has "M.T." stamp, prob. Livingston, 1884-1889.
Research Center-Photo Archives

 

957-385

Photographic portrait of unidentified African-American woman, Philipsburg, 1888-1889. Photographic full-length studio portrait of unidentified African-American woman wearing straw (est.) hat with plumed decoration at crown, light or medium-colored satin (est.) dress has high-collar with ribbon bow tie, sash over her left shoulder terminates in tassels at mid-leg, her gloved left hand rests on crestrail of upholstered Eastlake style side chair, gloved right hand holds parasol under her arm with handle pointed downward to the studio floor.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-431 Photographic print of African-American brass band on train excursion from Helena to Coeur d'Alene Summit, 1891 Photographic print of a large crowd of men who made up an August 21, 1891 train excursion from Helena, MT to the Coeur d' Alene Summit, ID, photo taken at trackside showing passenger cars with men leaning out of windows, a number of African American band members and civilians are standing near the center of the group, some with instruments. "SUNSET" with elevation sign near center of photo.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-457 Photographic print of unidentified African-American female at George Washington birthday party, 1890s Photograph of African-American female to left of center among white costumed party guests celebrating George Washington's birthday in Montana, poss. 1890s; see notes.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-580 through 596 Portraits of white patrons by J.P. Ball & Son, Helena, 1887-1897 ca. Photographic prints of Ball's white patrons W.M. Bishop, Henry Duerfeldt, Bill Hawkes, Josephine Herrmann, Annie Herrmann, Dan LaDell's twins, Father A.H. Lambacre, Herschel Branch Lyman, Frank Maxedon, Willie Moran, Mrs. C.B. Nolan, Alberta Quirk & Mamie O'Brien, Mamie O'Brien, Reverend A.D. Raleigh, Herbert Sherman, Sweney family, & Frederick Webb.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-597 Photographic portrait of William C. Irvin, Helena, ca. 1890 Photographic studio portrait of African-American William C. Irvin, policeman, wearing his Odd-Fellows Uniform, comprised of a hat with the I.O.O.F. links decorating the front, dark sack coat, white shirt with standing collar with bow tie. A pleated sash is draped over his right shoulder & secured at his left hip, bottom is fringed; a button & badge with ribbon reading "GOLDEN CITY HELENA..." with illeg. Date is pinned to his left lapel, he wears white gloves & his left hand is behind his back, Helena, ca. 1890.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-598 Photographic portrait of Willis C. "Tex" Rose, Helena, about 1900 Photographic portrait of middle-aged African-American male, Willis C. "Tex" Rose, (1855-1915; long-time Broadwater Hotel & Natatorium employee) who has closely-cropped hair, walrus mustache, twill suit & matching vest with piping, white shirt with pointed collar & bow tie. Helena, about 1900.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-599 Photographic portrait of Ben Stone, Helena, ca. 1885 Photographic portrait of Ben Stone with receding hairline, closely shaved head, beard & mustache with dark suit coat & black velvet (est.) lapels, collared vest, & shirt with bowtie. Helena, about 1885.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-600 Photographic portrait of unidentified African-American male youth, Helena, about 1890 Photographic portrait of unidentified male African-American youth with closely cropped hair, dark suit coat with trimmed or topstitched lapels, white shirt has high collar, vest sports watch fob with square-shaped pendant. Image of subject is set within a decorative clamshell. Helena, about 1890.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-601 Photographic portrait of unidentified African-American man, Helena, 1890s Full-length studio photographic portrait of unidentified young African-American man wearing bowler, top coat in lighter color, dark suit, white dress shirt, black leather (est.) gloves; his left hand rests on rustic fence & right is at his side holding very slim walking stick, prob. 1890s.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-602 Photographic portrait of unidentified African-American man, Helena, about 1890 Full-length photographic studio portrait of unidentified African-American man with closely cropped hair, receding, & mustache. He wears checked suit coat, white shirt with high collar, necktie, vest with watch fob, His left hand rests on drapery-covered pedestal, left leg crossed over right at calf, his right hand is behind his back. Helena, about 1890.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-603 Photographic portrait of unidentified African-American man, Helena, about 1890 Photographic portrait of middle-aged (est.) unidentified African-American male with short hair & mustache. He wears a short-collared topcoat with shiny military buttons, vest with similar buttons & white collared shirt with no necktie. Helena, about 1890.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-604 Photographic portrait of unidentified African-American men with dog, Helena, ca. 1890 Photographic full-length studio portrait of two young unidentified African-American men & hip-height retriever (est.) type dog, man at left wears wool billed cap, suit & vest, tie & white shirt, his right hand holds a cane & his left, raised, holds a cigar; second man is similarly dressed, his right index finger pointed down at the dog & his left resting on his hip with a cigar (est.), Helena, ca. 1890
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-605 Photographic portrait of unidentified African-American man with fraternal apron, Helena, ca. 1890 34 length photographic studio portrait of unidentified middle-aged African-American man with receding hairline & mustache, his right hand rests on a rustic fence. He wears a suit with a fraternal organization yoke & apron. The yoke has a curved profile with 6-pointed stars above & below "N.F." on the left & on the right the stars again & an eye with sunrays, the apron depicts classically-draped women, both the yoke & apron are heavily fringed.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-606 Photographic portrait of unidentified African-American man with fraternal apron, Helena, ca. 1890 34 length photographic studio portrait of unidentified young African-American man with short hair & mustache, his right hand rests on a rustic fence. He wears a dark suit, white dress shirt with high collar & neck tie with a fraternal organization yoke & apron. The yoke has a curved profile with indistinguishable decoration, the apron depicts classically-draped women, both the yoke & apron are heavily fringed, Helena, about 1890.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-607 Photographic portrait of unidentified young African-American boy, Helena, about 1890 Full-length studio photographic portrait of young African-American boy (est. 10 years) standing in front of rustic fence wearing plaid suit with Peter Pan collar, matching vest with watch fob, handkerchief, short pants, his glove left hand holds his hat & gloved right hand holds walking stick. Helena, ca. 1890.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-608 Photographic portrait of unidentified African-American woman, Helena, ca. 1890 Photographic portrait of young African-American woman with hair on top of head & frizzed bangs, bodice is dark color with beaded ornamentation on either side of numerous button closure, large metal pins at bodice, high white collar barely visible above bodice collar, drop earrings. Helena, ca. 1890.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-609 Photographic portrait of unidentified African-American woman, Helena, about 1890 Photographic portrait of unidentified young African-American woman with frizzed bangs & hair pulled back, bodice has vertical pleating, numerous buttons, high collar secured with elongated metal brooch, high white collar, drop earrings, about 1890.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-610 Photographic portrait of convicted murderer William Biggerstaff, Helena, 1896 Photographic studio portrait of William Biggerstaff, seated in armed side chair, short hair & mustache, he wears dark suit coat with light handkerchief in pocket, vest & striped pants, his right hand rests on his jaw & left rests on chair arm. Biggerstaff was hanged in Helena for the murder of African-American pugilist Dick Johnson, 1896.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-611 Photographic print prior to the hanging of convicted murderer William Biggerstaff, 1896 Photograph just prior to the hanging execution of African-American William Biggerstaff, at left is Reverend Victor Day holding his bowler hat, at center is Biggerstaff with cloth over his head & noose around his neck, ring or wedding band is visible on his left hand, & J. Sheriff J. Henry Jurgens, Helena, April 1896.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-612 Photographic print prior to the hanging of convicted murderer William Biggerstaff, 1896 Photograph just prior to the hanging execution of African-American William Biggerstaff, at left is Deputy Sheriff Fred Hoss, at center is Biggerstaff with cloth over his head & noose around his neck, & at left Sheriff J. Henry Jurgens, Helena, April 1896.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-613 Photographic portrait of convicted murderer William Biggerstaff in coffin, Helena, 1896 Photograph of African-American William Biggerstaff lying in coffin wearing dark suit, wedding band on his left hand, following his hanging execution for the murder of pugilist Dick Johnson, April 1896.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-881 Photographic print of African-American man & covered wagons, Ravalli & St. Ignatius, late 19th century Photo of three horse drawn, covered light -wagons loaded with dry goods in front of a building with shingled roof, at back is a 2 story house & trees. An African-American man stands in front of the second wagon. these wagons were used between Ravalli, MT and St. Ignatius, MT, prob. late 19th century.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-990

Photographic portrait of African-American Pvt. James D. Cowan, 25th Infantry, Ft. Custer, 1888 Studio photographic portrait of African-American Private James D. Cowan, Co. D, 25th Infantry; subject wears forage cap, dark military jacket, vest with watch fob, lighter-colored pants which flare & break at ankle, his right hand rests on rustic fence prop & left is bent at elbow & resting on his hip, Ft. Custer, 1888.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-991

Photographic portrait of unidentified African-American sergeant 25th Infantry, Ft. Custer, prob. 1888 Studio photographic 34 length portrait of unidentified African-American sergeant, 25th Infantry; subject wears no cap, dark military tunic with white collar & shiny buttons, sergeant's stripes on left sleeve, his right hand holds a riding crop (est.), his left arm is crooked behind his back, Ft. Custer, prob. 1888.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-992 Photographic portrait of unidentified African-American sergeant 25th Infantry, Ft. Custer, prob. 1888 Studio photographic portrait of unidentified African-American sergeant, co. D, 25th Infantry seated in chair, subject has a walrus mustache & wears a forage cap, dark military tunic with white collar & shiny buttons, sergeant's stripes on left & right sleeves, lighter-colored pants, his right elbow rests on indiscernible object, & left rests on his left leg, Ft. Custer, prob. 1888.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-993 Photographic print of African-American 10th Cavalry escorts to General Merritt's party, St. Mary's, 1894 Photographic print of members of African-American 10th cavalry lounging & lunching al fresco while escorting General Merritt's party, all wear cavalry hats, some also wear jackets & kerchiefs, the soldier with his hand on the bottle is Sgt. Robert H. Johnson,  St. Mary's, 1894.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-994 Photographic print of General Merritt's camp with members of the African-American 10th Cavalry, St. Mary's Lake, 1894 Photographic print of unidentified members of African-American 10th cavalry at General Wesley Merritt's camp, 5 African-American soldiers, left to right: stands in front of camp tent, sits on a horse, 2 hold pack mules, & fifth holds collar of dog, St. Mary's Lake, 1894.
Research Center-Photo Archives 957-995 Photographic print of General Merritt's camp with members of the African-American 10th Cavalry, St. Mary's Lake, 1894 Photographic print of unidentified members of African-American 10th cavalry at General Wesley Merritt's camp, at left stands soldier holding a long fishing pole in his left hand & catch of fish in right, 4 other men stand, kneel & sit in middle ground at right, tents & small log building with gable roof & 3 covered wagons in background, St. Mary's Lake, 1894.
Research Center-Photo Archives 981-837 Photographic print of "N**** Bob" Saloon, Jordan, 1904 Photograph of small log building with 2 over 2 windows flanking door at center, painted sign running width of building reads: "The [caricature of African-American man wearing cap] Bob Saloon Golden Grain Belt Beers". Five men sit in front of saloon, a saddle horse with saddle with rifle scabbard is standing to the left of the fifth man. Named the "N**** Bob" Saloon by locals, Jordan, 1904.
Research Center-Photo Archives 981-854

Photographic print of African-American boy riding goat in parade, Miles City, about 1910 Young African-American boy, about 7 or 8 years old, wearing light-colored, long sleeve shirt, denim coveralls with turned up pants legs & mid-calf length white cook's type apron tied at the waist, he sits astride a horned goat in the middle of a city street, holding the rope is a rotund white man wearing cowboy hat, chaps & kerchief, prob. Fourth of July parade, Miles City, 1910.
Research Center-Photo Archives Bundy & Train Stereograph of Mr. & Mrs. Molitor in front of their home, with unidentified African-American man, Helena, about 1879 Stereograph of hip-roofed, clapboard one story house with bargeboard trim, chimney at center; portly white man Stephen F. Molitor, assayer, stands on boardwalk in front of house's picket fence, standing just inside the gate is a white woman, prob. his wife Caroline Cordina; at right near the house's bay window stands an unidentified African-American man wearing hat, light-colored shirt & dark coat. Inscription on back of stereograph notes house's location as "Fifth Ave. W. of Warren", Helena, prob. 1879.
Research Center-Photo Archives Eighth Montana Legislature file Group photograph of white male state legislators at banquet served by unidentified African-American men Group photograph of Eighth Montana Legislature members (all white men) seated at long banquet table prior to dinner, behind the legislators stand approximately 10 unidentified African- American male waiters dressed in dark jackets, white shirts & dark bowties; 3 electric light chandeliers illuminate the unidentified room/building, prob. Helena, 1903.
Research Center-Photo Archives H-3614 Photographic print of African-American 25th Infantry bicyclists on Minerva Terrace, YNP, 1896 Photograph of 7 African-American 25th Infantry soldiers (posted at Ft. Missoula) wearing hats, long-sleeved shirts, pants & suspenders posing with their bicycles on Minerva Terrace, at top of photo is their white commander, Lt. James A. Moss; some bicycles have bedrolls, haversacks (est.) or metal boxes strapped to their handlebars, one wears an ammo belt around his waist & has a rifle strapped to his bicycle crossbar, Yellowstone National Park, 7 October 1897.
Research Center-Photo Archives H-3615 Photographic print of African-American 25th Infantry bicyclists at Mammoth Hot Springs, 1896 Photograph of 7 African-American 25th Infantry soldiers (posted at Ft. Missoula) & their white commander, Lt. James A. Moss (poss. leading them) wearing hats, long-sleeved shirts, pants & suspenders pushing their bicycles up 60 degree (est.) incline at Mammoth Hot Springs; some bicycles have bedrolls, haversacks (est.) or metal boxes strapped to their handlebars, one wears an ammo belt around his waist & has a rifle strapped to his bicycle crossbar, Yellowstone National Park, 7 October 1897.
Research Center-Photo Archives H-3616 Photographic print of African-American 25th Infantry bicyclists at Mammoth Hot Springs, 1896 Photograph of 7 African-American 25th Infantry soldiers (posted at Ft. Missoula) & their white commander, Lt. James A. Moss wearing hats, long-sleeved shirts, pants & suspenders & bicycling counterclockwise in circle on the top of terraces at Mammoth Hot Springs, some bicycles have bedrolls, haversacks (est.) or metal boxes strapped to their handlebars, Yellowstone National Park, 7 October 1897.
Research Center-Photo Archives H-3702 Photographic print of African-American 9th Cavalry members at W.S. Webb sporting excursion camp, Jackson Lake, 1896 or ?1897 Photograph of physician/financier/conservationist William Seward Webb's sporting excursion "permanent camp" at Jackson Lake in the Tetons depicts some of the 24 enlisted men from the African-American 9th Cavalry who accompanied Webb's party standing among tents in clearing, Jackson Lake, WY, Sept. 1896.
Research Center-Photo Archives H-3715 Photographic print of African-American 9th Cavalry members & other W.S. Webb excursion members at "Beaver Dick's" tepee, 1896 Photograph of party from physician/financier/conservationist William Seward Webb's sporting excursion in the Tetons, depicts 3 of the 24 enlisted African-American 9th Cavalry members who accompanied the party, at tent home of "Beaver Dick" (Richard Leigh), from left to right are two unidentified white men in shirts, hats & suspenders (prob. Army officers), bearded white man with hat pushed back on head, wearing vest & collarless shirt, holds double-barreled firearm (prob. "Beaver Dick") pointed upward, unidentified Native American woman in bodice with bowtie collar & numerous buttons & long skirt, the unidentified 3 African-Americans are in hats, dark shirts, & one in suspenders & another with necktie, posed at center & right, another white man, is seated cross-ankled on ground & holds rifle in the crook of his left elbow, "Camp Teton", WY, September 1896.
Research Center-Photo Archives H-3718

Photographic print of African-American 9th Cavalry member serving W.S. Webb & excursion members in mess tent, Camp Teton, 1896 Photograph of an unidentified enlisted African-American 9th Cavalry member pouring coffee (est.) from pot for 3 white men (one identified as physician/financier/conservationist William Seward Webb) on Webb's sporting excursion in the Tetons. African-American is hatless, wears dark-colored shirt with kerchief around his neck, white men are seated in temporary mess tent of light-colored fabric & with frame constructed of timber lashed together, "Camp Teton", WY, September 1896.
Research Center-Photo Archives H-3730 Photographic print of African-American 9th Cavalry members at W.S. Webb excursion mess tent, 1896 Photograph of a two unidentified enlisted African-American 9th Cavalry members on physician/financier/conservationist William Seward Webb's sporting excursion in the Tetons; they stand to the left of a small stove with vertical flue pipe & between two adjacent tents, wearing dark-colored shirts, one with hat & suspenders & the other hatless with kerchief who wipes plate with towel, firewood is stacked at left & at right is a wash basin on rustic stand, rifle, bucket hanging on end of slanted drying (est.) pole, Jenny Lake, WY, September 1896.
Research Center-Photo Archives H-4873

Photographic print of African-American YNP Canyon Hotel waiters & river, 1901 Photograph depicts group of 4 men, 3 of them African-American, standing on rocks in river, solitary white man stands at top center & wears straw boater, jacket, white shirt & dark pants, to his left & right stand 2 African-American men wearing suits, light-colored shirts, necktie & bowtie & hats tilted back on their heads, both appear to hold cigarettes, one wears a wedding band (est.), 4th man, also African-American, is seated at bottom center, his hands clasped on his knees & is dressed similarly; subjects are described as waiters from Yellowstone National Park's Canyon Hotel, 1901, "Yellowstone Park1901" handwritten in LLC.
Research Center-Photo Archives H-4874 Photographic print of African-American YNP Canyon Hotel waiters & river, 1901 Photograph depicts group of 3 African-American men seated on in river wearing suits, light-colored shirts, necktie & bowties & hats (one a derby) tilted back on their heads, subject at left & at center hold guitars, man at right holds mandolin, subjects are described as waiters from Yellowstone National Park's Canyon Hotel, 1901.
Research Center-Photo Archives M900-343 Photographic print of Charles "Smoky" Wilson, Crow Agency, early 1930s Oversize photographic portrait of aged Charles Wilson [ca. 1861-1936], aka "Smoky", African-American resident of Crow Agency, MT. Wilson wears hat, jacket, badge (poss. Society of Montana Pioneers), suit coat & pants, shirt with no tie, at bottom of photo is "Montana Pioneer of 1866".
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 2002-3 Color transparency of Alma Jacobs at Great Falls Public Library opening, 1967 Photographic prints & 35mm color transparencies depict African-American librarian Alma Jacobs at the 12 October 1967 opening of the Great Falls Public Library; transparency depicts from left to right, Beatrice Eigher, Margaret Warden, L.L. "Pete" Callaway, & librarian Alma Jacobs
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 2002-36.10-11 Group photographs of the Pleasant Hour Club picnic, Colorado Gulch, 1926 Two group photographs of members of Helena's African-American women's club, Pleasant Hour Club, at picnic in Colorado Gulch, near Helena, 1926.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 2002-36.12 Group photograph of unidentified African-American participants around dining table, location unidentified, ca. 1930 Group photograph of approximately 20 African-American men & women of varied ages dressed in suits & fancy dresses seated & standing around dining table showing remains of a meal, unidentified occasion, locale & participants, ca. 1930.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 2002-36.13 Group photograph of participants in "Negro History Week", Helena, 1958 Group photograph of African-American & white men & women & one white girl standing & seated on Mission style sofa & chairs in upper floor (est.) room, "Negro History Week, Feb. 1958". Subjects are identified on photograph photocopy, Helena, February 1958.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 2002-36.14 Photographic portrait of Arthur C. Ford, Helena, about 1920 Photographic portrait of Arthur C. Ford (son of Nathaniel & Sadie Ford, Helena), ca. 1920
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 2002-36.1 Group photograph of Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs annual meeting attendees. Group photograph of attendees of Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs annual meetings in Billings, MT. c. 1935
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 2002-36.2 Group photograph of Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs annual meeting attendees. Group photograph of attendees of Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs annual meetings in Butte, MT. Late 1920's
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 2002-36.3 Group photograph of Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs annual meeting attendees. Group of African American women posed in front of the door of St. James AME Church, 5th Avenue and Hoback, Helena, Montana. taken July 19, 1929.
L. H. Jorud, photographer, Helena, MT
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 2002-36.4 Montana State Federation of Negro Women's Clubs Montana State Federation of Negro Women's Clubs, Billings, Montana, 1935. Group of African American women and children posted in front of the Wayman Chapel A.M.E. Some women identified.
Petek Studio, Photographer
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 2002-36.5 15th Annual Convention. Montana State Federation of Negro Women's Clubs. 15th Annual Convention. Montana State Federation of Negro Women's Clubs. Great Falls, Montana, July 29-30, 1936.
Titter studio Photographers, Great Falls, Mont.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 2002-36.6 17th Annual Convention Montana Federation of Negro Women's Clubs 17th Annual Convention Montana Federation of Negro Women's Clubs, Butte, Montana, June 23-24, 1937. [Some women and children identified.]
Photograph by C. Owen Smithers, Butte, Montana
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 2002-36.7 17th Annual Convention Montana Federation of Negro Women's Clubs 17th Annual Convention Montana Federation of Negro Women's Clubs, Butte, Montana, June 23-24, 1937. [Some women and children identified.]
Photograph by C. Owen Smithers, Butte, Montana
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 2002-36.8 Montana Federation of Colored Womens Clubs Group of African American women posed in front of an American flag and a banner that reads "Montana Federation of Colored Womens Clubs", Butte, Montana, c. 1950
Photo by Al's Photo Shop, Butte, Montana
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 2002-36.9 Group of African American women 44th Annual Montana Federation of Colored Womens Club, Helena, Montana, June 21, 1965.
Photo by L. H. Jorud, photographer, Helena, Montana
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 2007-54.1-9 Collection of nine black and white photographic prints size 8”x10”. They include two featuring Dr. John Walter Duncan, and seven Montana Federation of Colored Women’s Clubs group photos. Portrait of Dr. John Walter Duncan and image of him with others at Podiatry School (ca. 1910s); views of Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs gatherings in Billings and Butte, Montana, and at national meetings (ca. 1927-1968).
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 74-104.144GP

Photographic print of Emma Bridgwater Harrell (est.) at the piano, Helena, about 1915 Photographic portrait of Emma Bridgwater Harrell (est.) (b. 1893, Arizona) seated at upright piano, her hair is parted at center & piled on top of her head, she is dressed in a long shiny fabric dress with curvilinear piping on front & bolero-type jacket. Her left elbow rests on the piano keys & right is in her lap; music book open to "Bubi Fox Trot" (published 1915), ceramic vases of various sizes decorate the piano top; Helena, MT, ca. 1915.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 74-104.145GP Photographic portrait of unidentified elderly African-American woman, prob. Helena, about 1910 Full-length photographic portrait of unidentified elderly African-American woman standing in flower garden with tree or bush behind her, her salt & pepper hair is parted in the center & piled on top of her head, she wears a light-colored long-sleeved blouse with black jeweled neck (est.) & long paneled skirt of dark fabric, prob. Helena, ca. 1910.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 74-104.266GP

Photographic print of Walter Dorsey & daughters in front of their grocery store, Helena, 1905-1907 Photograph of clapboard one story commercial building with false front façade, sign with "GROCERIES. W.R. DORSEY. HAY & GRAIN." above large, multi-paned display windows, rolled-up striped awning; signs on boards below windows read: "FRESH CANDIES. FRUITS. CONFECTIONERY. TIN & GRANITEWARE." Standing on the boardwalk in front of the store is owner African-American Walter R. Dorsey (1866-1907) with close-cropped hair & trimmed mustache, light-colored shirt with stand-up collar & necktie; two young girls, presumably his daughters Carrie (b. Montana, 1893) & Lena (b. Montana, 1897), stand on either side of him & are dressed in light-colored, light-weight knee-length dresses, dark stockings & shoes, their hair is piled atop their heads; young white boy, about 10-12 years old, stands to the right with a feather duster (est.) in his right hand,, wears a cap, long-sleeved shirt with garter on right elbow, & coveralls; Helena, 1905-1907.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 74-104.352GP

Photographic print of unidentified African-American chauffeur in touring car at Hill Park, Helena, ca. 1915 Photograph of unidentified African-American driver/chauffeur in pristine touring auto with rag top, subject wears cap, dark coat, light-colored shirt, vest & figured necktie, his hands in cuffed leather gloves rest on the steering wheel; on the end of the hood are attached a US flag & Norwegian or Union Jack (est.) flag, Helena, ca. 1915.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 74-104.45N Group photograph of First Communion class with African-American girl & woman, Helena, early 1940s Group photograph of approximately 30 "First Communion" boys & girls, family members & clergy assembled on front steps of Cathedral of St. Helena; African-American girl (not dressed in First Communion dress & veil with round-brimmed hat tipped back on her head & light-colored short-sleeved dress with ruching) stands at left behind last row of new communicants, to her left is African-American woman, possibly a relative, wearing round hat tipped back on her head, short-sleeved dress with white cuffs & white kerchief/collar, possibly Betty Allen & Joanne Allen, Helena, MT, prob. early 1940s.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 74-104.50GP Group photograph of African-American girl & classmates at unidentified high school, ca. 1910 Group photograph of approximately 28 teenaged (est.) boys & girls standing on steps of stone school building (est.); sole African-American student is a female in the fourth row, extreme left, with her hair pulled back & wearing a light-colored bodice; poss. Helena, ca. 1910.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 74-104.56GP Photographic print of blackface performers, prob. Helena, early 20th century Photograph of four performers (probably all male) on theatre stage all in blackface, subject at extreme left masquerades as a maid or house servant & wears kerchief on head, light- colored blouse with floppy, oversized cuffs, long skirt leans back from broom; subject left of center leans toward her & wears a fake white beard, long duster (est.) over checked shirt, his left hand holds hat behind his back, his right hand holds raised cane; subject to right of center is standing pigeon-toed with hat back on head, dark shirt & pants & hands behind his back, he smiles at subject (who might be African-American) at extreme right who wears hat, coveralls, & light-colored shirt; unidentified location, prob. early 20th century.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 74-15.5 Photographic print of African-American men on Missouri River bank & steamboat DeSmet Photograph of approximately seven African-American men standing in the grass at right, some facing camera, on the banks of the Missouri River at Ft. Benton, steamboat DeSmet with tiny figures of Mrs. William Guthrie & son George, watching from the boat.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 76-26 Photographic print of African-American 24th Infantry encamped with the Third Cavalry, Ft. Benton, 1904 Two photographs depicting soldiers from the African-American 24th Infantry (attached to Ft. Assiniboine) encamped with the Third Cavalry, Ft. Benton, 23 September 1904.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 79-53 Photographic print of home of African-American Norman Howard, Helena, 1895 ca. Photograph of two-story clapboard Queen Anne style house with irregular roof line, stick style porch, picket-type fence, home of African-American Norman Howard, 1003 Ninth Avenue, Helena, ca. 1895.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 80-88 Photographs of African-American musicians at television studio, Great Falls, 1952 5 photographs show various African-American male vocalists & instrumentalists performing before KXLK's new TV camera: 1) African-American male vocalist wearing double-breasted suit coat & dark shirt, no tie, singing & gesturing, in background is a African-American man playing a spinet/console piano; 2) African-American male in nylon windbreaker (est.) sitting on tubular chair & playing spinet/console piano; 3) African-American man in patchwork-print long-sleeved shirt standing & playing spinet/console piano, TV camera at right with white cameraman wearing headset; 4) two white men in business suits flanking African-American man (poss. singer in print #1) wearing double-breasted suit, white shirt who might be holding XXX, 5) DIGITIZED: African-American USAF private in uniform playing trumpet, pianist in background mostly obscured.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 81-13.119 Two African-American children & two white children eating watermelons, poss. Billings, 1890s-1915 Photographic print depicting 4 unidentified children eating watermelon while sitting on ground (possibly back yard), leaned up against a tall plank fence, two young white boys at left & two larger & older African-American boys sit at right, all hold watermelon slices up before their faces, poss. Billings, 1890s-1915.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 81-13.147 Photographic print of African-American man with African-American child in carriage, poss. Billings, 1890s-1915 Photographic print depicting unidentified African-American man with closely-shaved/cropped hair dressed in light-colored, long-sleeved shirt, dark vest & pants, with his left hand resting on a wicker baby carriage's handle, in carriage is an unidentified African-American baby (about one year or younger) dressed in long, light-colored garb. Location is in front yard with lawn (est.), potted plant & summer bushes & trees, corral & outbuildings, low hills visible in background; poss. Billings, 1890s-1915.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 82-19 F1 Ringold Photographs from the Taylor Gordon collection One of Approximately 450 photographs associated with African-Americans Rose Taylor & (Emmanuel) Taylor Gordon, White Sulphur Springs; a small TBD percentage of these photographs have African-American subjects.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 82-19 F1 unidentified man Photographs from the Taylor Gordon collection One of Approximately 450 photographs associated with African-Americans Rose Taylor & (Emmanuel) Taylor Gordon, White Sulphur Springs; a small TBD percentage of these photographs have African-American subjects.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 83-98.95, .96, .97 Photographs of Jim Jackson, Helena, early 1930s Three photographs of Jim (James) Jackson (b. Maryland, about 1872) in various locales in Reeder's Alley: first photo depicts him sitting on corner of roof of building with (still black) close-cropped hair, his right hand raised in greeting, he wears long-sleeved light-colored plaid shirt, suspenders & dark pants; second photo depicts him sitting on a stool in front of a house; third photo depicts him dressed same as in first photograph, sitting on chair with long-handled tool in his hands, he looks off to his left, in background are two buildings with very small space between them, washline with clothes hanging on it; Helena, prob. 1930-1935.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 85-33 F5

Photographic print of cowboy George Jackson (est.) Photo of D.J. O'Malley (eastern MT range cowboy and cook) with an African-American cowboy in the Forsyth, MT area. O'Malley is leaning on the chuck wagon counter and the African- American cowboy, possibly George Jackson, a Texan Cowboy, is near the entrance to the cook tent, Forsyth area, about 1900.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 88-66

Photographic portrait of "Auntie" Palmer, Miles City, about 1885 Photographic portrait of "Auntie" Palmer seated in large armchair, her grey/silver hair is parted in the center & pulled back, she wears a two piece suit with fitted jacket of dark material with very large, few woven (est.) polka dots, wide lapels & multiple button closure, matching skirt; the subject's hands are gloved & she holds a pair of eyeglasses in her left hand, Miles City, about 1885.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 90-59 Photographic print of parade of nations pageant with African-American adolescent females, Helena, 1914 Group photograph depicting 22 adolescent & young adult females (approximately 10 of them African-Americans) participating in parade of nations-type pageant. Participants are dressed in the native dress of various nations, some holding national flags, they flank a classically-garbed woman, probably "Columbia", who sits on elevated platform before U.S. flag, Helena, 1914.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 92-37 Photographic print of county sheriff's barn where 3 African-Americans were executed in 1907, White Sulphur Springs, early 1970s Photograph (prob. early 1970s) of hip roofed, clapboard two story barn on skids prior to after moving has two large openings (missing rolling doors) on first story, window frame at one end; on second story is two over two light window at gable end & mow door (above missing rolling doors). Originally located approximately 100 feet from the Meagher County jailhouse, this building was the site of the legal execution of 3 African-Americans (Leslie Fahley, Harrison Gibson & Henry Hall) convicted of the murder in the first degree of Mike Freeman, a transient laborer, on board an eastbound train near Nihill, MT in October 1906. In 1975, the barn was donated to Bovey Restorations by the White Sulphur Springs Historical Society & subsequently moved & modified.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 95-68.C357 & 358 Photographs of African-American 10th Cavalry troop, Ft. Keogh, about 1892 Two photographs of "A" troop of US Tenth Cavalry regiment on parade field (est.): first photograph depicts approximately 24 African-American troops on horseback, organized in lines of two & three abreast all facing to the left, the troop's white commander, Captain Cooper is at center front, also facing left, in the background are massive pilings of wood cords stacked against one story, pitch-roofed buildings at perimeter; second photograph depicts approximately 40 African-American men on horseback with sabers drawn, white commander, Captain Cooper, is at center front; in the background are massive pilings of wood cords stacked against one story, pitch-roofed buildings at perimeter; Ft. Keogh, about 1892.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 95-68.C360 Photographic print of African-American 10th Cavalry troop, Ft. Keogh, about 1892 Photographs of "A" troop of US Tenth Cavalry regiment on parade field (est.) depicts approximately 35 African-American troops on horseback, organized in single line, the troop's white commander, Captain Cooper is at center front, in the background are massive pilings of wood cords stacked against one story, pitch-roofed buildings at perimeter; Ft. Keogh, about 1892.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 95-70 Unidentified African-American & white adolescent males with instruments in parade, Miles City, 1890s Photographic print of parade of unidentified uniformed adolescent white & African-American males holding brass instruments & signs ("MKB? [image of steer]" & "THESTATEHERD" & others standing in muddy street, Miles City, 1890s.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 95-70 Photographic print of Blackface, white & African-American boy & men on stage, poss. Miles City, about 1900 Photographic print of 6 men and African-American boy on stage inside tent, blurred spectators in foreground; from left to right are an African-American (or poss. Blackface) man seated on covered chair dressed in suit & light-colored vest with tambourine resting on his right knee, African-American man similarly dressed & seated, white (est.) man standing wearing suit, dark vest & top hat, at center is African-American boy, about 10 yrs old, wearing cap, shortcoat with shiny buttons, knickers & cap, to his left is a white man standing wearing suit, dark vest, top hat & walking stick in right hand, an African-American man wearing suit, no tie (est.) & seated, African-American man seated wearing suit & light-colored vest, possibly holding an object in his lap. In the background is illeg. sign & rack of bottles, possibly configured as a musical instrument; poss. Miles City, about 1900.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 95-70 Box 11

Photographic print of 4 Black women posed in a room with 3 white men & 2 Black men, Miles City, ca. 1905 Photographic prints (printed from glass plate negatives) depicting Black & white prostitutes, their clients & poss. their johns in their place of employment; digitized example depicts 4 African-American women covered from head to toe, their male clients at their sides, from left to right: prostitute wears dark calf-length wrapper with piping, young white male with cowboy (est.) hat in proper left hand stands to her proper left; second prostitute wears floor-length light-colored "Mother Hubbard" nightgown with deep flounce & wide collar, to her proper left stands a young Mexican (est.) man, his cowboy hat in hand; behind him stands a Black man (poss. their employer), to his proper left stands another prostitute wearing a light-colored "Mother Hubbard" nightgown with double flounce, long ruched sleeves & demure neckline, to her proper left stands young sunburned cowboy, to his proper left stands tall prostitute with checked light-colored "Mother Hubbard" nightgown & velvet (est.) choker, her client, prob. a businessman, stands to her proper left & wears a 3-piece suit, holding or waving his hat in his proper right hand.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 95-70 Box 17

African-American soldiers & families ice-harvesting on the Yellowstone River Photographic print of approximately twenty men & women (some might be white but majority are Black) dressed for the cold & standing on snowy Yellowstone River bank near Ft. Keogh, with ice harvesting activity & wagon behind them, short-haired dog at left & horse with pack & canteen at right. Covered wagon on snow behind them, primitive ferry in icy river, on opposite bank are other people & horses; rocky stone outcroppings with snow in distance. In LRC: "R.C. Morrison" handwritten & "© 1990", obviously added later.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-22.4 Photographic portrait of unidentified African-American nurse with white charge, Margaret Bache, about 1895 Photographic portrait of seated unidentified African-American woman with toddler aged white girl, Margaret Bache, on her lap, woman's hair is pulled back (or less likely, cropped very short) & wears a dark white window plaid bodice with oversized puffed sleeves, the toddler wears a light-colored dress with capped sleeves & bows (est.) in her hair, dark shoes; location unidentified, about 1895.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.1 Photographic print of Emma Riley Harris Smith & daughters Madeline, Lucille & Alma, near Lewistown, ca. 1920 Photographic portrait of Emma Riley Harris Smith (Mrs. Martin Luther Smith, born Arkansas, about 1882) seated on chair flanked by her young daughters: on her right, Madeline Smith Haskins Clark (b. MT, about 1914), Lucille Smith Thompson (b. MT, about 1919) on her lap, and Alma Victoria Smith Jacobs (b. MT, about 1916) at her left. Photo taken near their Spring Creek residence near Lewistown, MT, about 1920.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.11 Group photograph of attendees of the 31st convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, Butte, 1952 Group photograph of approximately 32 African-American women attendees (including 2 babies) at the 31st convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, standing on sidewalk & steps in front of the First Baptist Church, Butte, July 1952. Attendees are identified.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.12 Group photograph of attendees of the Northwest Regional convention of the National Association of Colored Women, Casper, WY, 1953 Group photograph of African-American women in dresses & some hats attending the Northwest Regional of the National Association of Colored Women, stand in 4 rows in front of faux brick (asphalt siding), gable-roofed one story structure (poss. church or town hall), Alma Jacobs is sole identified person, Casper, WY, August 19-21, 1953.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.13 Group photograph of attendees of the 32nd convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, Helena, 1953 Group photograph of 22 African-American women attendees at the 32nd convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, standing on sidewalk & steps in front of a stucco building, prob. the location of the "Pleasant Hour Club", Helena, July 14-15, 1953.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.14 Group photograph of unidentified African-American women, Great Falls, ca. 1945 Photograph of unidentified assemblage of African-American women, girls & boys, possibly meeting of Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, four rows with first row kneeling, second row seated & third & fourth rows standing, Great Falls, ca. 1945.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.15 Group photograph of attendees of meeting of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, Great Falls, about 1950 Group photograph of 32 attendees (all African-American women except for African-American girl toddler, & white man boy & woman at right) at an unidentified convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, standing in 3 rows in the sanctuary of the Union Bethel A.M.E. Church, "MONTANA FEDERATION…." banner hanging from light fixture between windows, Great Falls, about 1950. Some members identified.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.16 Group photograph of attendees of the regional convention of the Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, Great Falls, 1957 Group photograph of approximately 40 African American women attendees of the regional meeting of the Federation of Colored Women's Clubs standing in the sanctuary of Union Bethel A.M.E. Church, Great Falls, 1957; some attendees are identified.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.17

Photographic print of "Tom Thumb wedding" at Union Bethel A.M.E. Church, Great Falls, ca. 1955 Photographic print of "Tom Thumb wedding", usually a fund raiser, inside church with African-American & white women & 2 young white boys watching very young (about 5 years old) African-American "flower girl" coming up aisle carrying basket & dressed in lacy light-colored dress & shawl, white anklets & dark double-strapped shoes; strewn flower petals behind her in background is the narthex with African-American women preparing another young girl to walk down the aisle, Union Bethel A.M.E. Church, Great Falls, ca. 1955.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.18 Group photograph of attendees of the 40th convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, Helena, 1961 Group photograph of approximately 40 attendees (mostly African-American women except for one African-American man, 2 white men, two white women & one white girl) at the 40th convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, sitting & standing in restaurant (est.) with vine-covered planter grille behind them; some of the attendees are identified, Helena, 1961.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.19 Group photograph of attendees of the 40th convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, Helena, 1961 Group photograph of seven middle-aged & elderly African-American women attendees at the 40th convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, sitting & standing in restaurant (est.) with vine-covered planter grille behind them; some of the attendees are identified, Helena, 1961.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.2

Group photograph of attendees of the 1st convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, Butte, 1921 Group photograph of approximately 40 African-American women (& a few small girls) attendees of the 1st convention of the Montana Federation of Negro Women's Clubs, posed in front of masonry wall with faint painted sign "CHICKEN DINNER", pointed arch window with leaded glass at center, prob. Schaffer A.M.E. Chapel, Butte, 1921. Attendees are unidentified.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.20 Group photograph of attendees of meeting of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, Great Falls, about 1965 Group photograph of 22 African-American women attendees at an unidentified convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, stand below & on exterior staircase of brick building, Union Bethel A.M.E. Church, Great Falls, about 1965.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.21 Group photograph of attendees of the 43rd convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, Butte, 1964 Group photograph of 20 African-American women attendees at the 43rd convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, sitting & standing behind banquet tables, Butte, June 28-30, 1964; some members are identified.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.22 Group photograph of attendees of the 44th convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, Billings, 1965 Group photograph of 22 African-American women (poss. one white woman to left of window) attendees at the 43rd convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, sitting & standing behind banquet tables, Billings, 1965.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.23 Photographic print of Valentine's Day tea by the "Sisters" [sic, poss. Household?] of Ruth, Chapter 21, U.D. Group photograph of 17 club women (all African-American except for two white women) wearing hats sitting & standing around table set for Valentine's Day tea given by the Sisters [sic, poss. Household?] of Ruth, Chapter 12, table has silver service, plates, coffee pot, centerpiece, etc. Sitting at the center (to left of white woman) is guest speaker Alma Jacobs, ; prob. Great Falls, February 14, 1965.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.24 Group photograph of attendees of the 46th convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, Great Falls, 1967 Group photograph of 13 attendees at the 46th convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs at unidentified location (probably hotel/restaurant), the middle-aged & elderly African-American women sit & stand in two rows, some of the attendees are identified, Great Falls, June 9, 1967.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.25-.26 Group photograph of attendees of the 47th convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, Butte, 1968 Two group nearly identical photographs of 13 attendees at the 47th convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs at unidentified location (probably hotel/restaurant), the middle-aged & elderly African-American women sit & stand in two rows, some of the attendees are identified, Butte, 1968.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.27 Group photograph of attendees of the 49th convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, Helena, 1969 Group photograph of 13 attendees at the 49th convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs at unidentified location (probably hotel/restaurant), the middle-aged & elderly African-American women sit & stand behind banquet tables, heavy trimmed curtains with valance & US flag in background, Helena, 1969.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.28 Group photograph of attendees of the 50th convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, Great Falls, 1971 Group photograph of 16 women attendees (all appear to be African-American except for one) at the 50th anniversary of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, sitting & standing behind banquet table on which sits tiered cake, lettering below cake: "HAPPY50 ANNIVERSARY", Great Falls, June 1971.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.29 Group photograph of attendees of convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, unidentified location, about 1965 Group photograph of 15 African-American women attendees at an unidentified convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, stand in two outside, possibly at hotel/restaurant, location unidentified, about 1965.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.3 Group photograph of attendees of the 4th convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, Bozeman, 1924 Group photograph of approximately 30 African-American women (& one small boy) attendees of the 4th convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, posed on ground & steps in front of brick building, Bozeman, July 29, 1924. Attendees are identified.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.30 Group photograph of attendees of meeting of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, unidentified location, about 1970 Group photograph of 12 women attendees (all African-American except for woman in back row at left) at an unidentified convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, sitting & standing, location unidentified, ca. 1970.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.31 Photographic portrait of Mamie Lee Lacey, Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs president, Billings, about 1970 Photographic portrait of middle-aged African-American woman, Mamie Lee Lacey, with short, bobbed haircut wearing dark collared blouse/dress with petaled flower pin on her left lapel, prob. about 1970.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.4 Group photograph of attendees of the 13th convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, Helena, 1933 Group photograph of approximately 32 African-Americans (mostly women but a few men & 2 children) attendees of the 13th convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, seated & standing on ground & steps at St. James African American Episcopal Church (A.M.E.), Helena, 1933.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.5 Group photograph of attendees of meeting of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, Great Falls, about 1950 Group photograph of approximately 35 attendees (all African-American women except for African-American girl toddlers, elderly African-American man, & poss. white woman) at an unidentified convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, sit & stand in 3 rows in the sanctuary of the Union Bethel A.M.E. Church, "MONTANA FEDERATION..." banner hanging from light fixture between windows, Great Falls, about 1950. Some members identified.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.6 Group photograph of attendees of the 29th convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, Great Falls, 1950 Group photograph of approximately 50 people (about six men & women are white, the remainder are African-American women except for about 5 African-American men) attendees at the 29th convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, seated & standing around long banquet table bearing tiered cake, centerpiece, condiments, etc. in the basement of the Union Bethel A.M.E. Church, Great Falls, July 25, 1950.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.7 Group photograph of attendees of the 17th convention of the Montana Federation of Negro Women's Clubs, Helena, 1938 Group photograph of approximately 38 African-Americans (mostly women but 7 children & one man) attendees of the 17th convention of the Montana Federation of Negro Women's Clubs (aka Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs) standing on the ground & steps in front of St. Peter's [Episcopal] Pro-Cathedral, Helena, July 1938.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.8 Group photograph of attendees of the 28th convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, Helena, 1949 Group photograph of 24 African-American women attendees of the 28th convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, seated & standing on ground & steps of unidentified stuccoed building with double doors open behind them; the caption at the photograph's bottom notes that the attendees were entertained by the Pleasant Hour Club (Helena's "Colored Women's Club"), Helena, July 11-13, 1949.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.9 & 10 Group photograph of attendees of the 30th convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, Great Falls, 1951 Two nearly identical group photographs of approximately 28 African-American women attendees at the 30th convention of the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, seated & standing on steps in front of the Union Bethel A.M.E. Church, Great Falls, July 16-18, 1951.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-25.A1 Album photographs of Charles M. Thompson family, Kalispell, 1897-1945 Photograph album comprised of approximately 278 photographs of the Charles M. Thompson family & relatives in & around Kalispell, 1897-1945.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 96-8.M1 White Harvard student Louis P. Sanders in drag dancing with fellow white male student in Blackface, Cambridge, MA, about 1897 Photographic print of white male students performing in Harvard University "amateur theatrical", depicts Louis P. Sanders of Helena, MT wearing women's make-up & dressed in drag wearing woman's hat with lacy decoration, choker, bodice with large puffed sleeves, self-fabric belt at waist, long A-line skirt, his right knee is raised in a dance step & his right hand holds a closed parasol aloft; his left hand is on the right shoulder of a fellow male student (est.) in Blackface wearing a top hat, high-collared white shirt, large dark bowtie, dark vest, light-colored suit coat with tails & plaid pants, his right leg is raised in similar dance step, prob. Cambridge, MA, 1897.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 97-13.8

Photographic print of African-American toddlers & others on giant bassinet parade float Photographic print of parade float resembling a giant bassinet with oversized stork holding "baby" from its beak, uniformed nurse below stork with back to camera, two African-American female toddlers with huge hair ribbons at left on float, Mt. Helena in background.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 97-13.8

Photographic print of two unidentified African-American women walking down street, Helena, 1937 Photograph of the New Cash Market & Helena Independent newspaper storefronts on the west side of Main Street (Last Chance Gulch), two unidentified African-American women with hats, dresses, one on the right wears a coat, Helena, 1937
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 98.51-36 Photographic print of Christmas party at Montana Developmental Center, Boulder, ca. 1970 Photographic print of Christmas party for adolescent residents at the Montana Developmental Center as well as a few men & women plus Santa Claus, at center stands an unidentified African-American adolescent male with dark, collarless long-sleeved sweater, dark hip hugger pants with belt with chain (est.) extending from buckle to his right pocket, his hair is medium length & he is looking to one side; at right is lit Christmas tree with piles of wrapped gifts around it, at extreme right & partially obscured is another African-American male, wearing light socks & dark pants, his face is not visible, Boulder, about 1970.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 98-51.M3 Photographic print of Montana Developmental Center Boy Scouts standing & mounted on horses, about 1970 Photographic print of Montana Developmental Center adolescent male residents dressed in Boy Scout uniforms, some are mounted on horses (as is the African-American male at the left) while others hold the horses' reins, mountains (poss. Boulder Valley) in background, about 1970.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 99-1.1 Helena "newsies" [newspaper boys] with A.I. "Daddy" Reeves, Helena, 1929 Group photograph of approximately 45 Helena Daily Independent newspaper delivery boys sitting on masonry building entrance steps in 7 rows, at center is A.I. "Daddy" Reeves in straw boater surrounded by boys, many wearing "newsboy" caps, a few reading the newspaper, included are 3 African-American boys: one in second to top row at left, only his head is visible; second sits on the front steps, third from the right wearing a newsboy hat, long-sleeved shirt, jeans with turned up cuffs & canvas high-tops; third newsboy (poss. African-American) sits on the ground by himself with crossed legs cradling a watermelon between his knees, photo is inscribed: "With best wishes...Your friends--"The Helena Newsies"on 26th Annual Picnic--Camp Vigilante-8-8-'29".
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 99-23.16 Group photograph of unidentified African-American & Helena High School track team, 1945-1947. Group photograph of high school boys' track team standing in front of bleachers, approximately 65 boys dressed in their uniforms with "HELENA" tank tops & light-colored shorts, with 3 coaches & student assistants kneeling on the track, African-American boy is in the third row, fourth from the right, Helena, 1945-1947.
Research Center-Photo Archives PAc 99-36.126 & 127 Two photographs of blackface performers, poss. Helena, about 1910 Two photographs from Helena Independent Record: 1) first photograph depicts two white males in blackface, on one the right wears wide-brimmed, flat crown straw (est.) hat, woman's bodice with wide, trimmed collar, long sleeves, light-colored pants & holds cane or parasol in his right hand, he appears to be listening to second performer who is expounding on unknown topic & who wears a porkpie hat, faux mutton white chops & eyebrows, raggedy tails & dark pants, he holds umbrella in his right hand, pointing upward & appears to be explaining or stressing a point; 2) second photograph depicts single white male in blackface wearing too-small top hat at an angle on top of curly (est.) hair, tails & necktie & vest in different patterns, light-colored pants.
Research Center 306.74 M95w Women on the Line: Prostitution in Butte, Montana, 1878-1917 [M.A. thesis typescript] M.A. history thesis submitted to the faculty of UNC-Chapel Hill focusing on prostitution in Butte's red light district, pp. 62-64 describe the city's "...substantial minority of black prostitutes, some of whom had been original settlers...", describes 1903 segregation between white & black prostitutes, "N***** Liz" (aka Lizzie Hall), etc. with citations from the 1910 US Federal census (whose schedules had not yet been released when the thesis was written), Perdita Duncan interview by author, Federal Writers Project, 1909, 1910 & 1915 Butte Miner issues.
Research Center B W5838N Mr. White: a very short story of his life as told by himself Rectangular paperboard book with hand-drawn Art Modern elements on cover, inside are holographic "chapters" describing John W. White's peripatetic life in the West after being born into slavery in NC; last 38 years of his life were spent as the janitor at Central School, Kalispell. Illustrations include 3 bw photographic portraits; Mabel Bjork Norris was the amanuensis.

Research Center

LG1 Helena (Mont.). City Clerk records This collection consists of records filed with the City Clerk of the City of Helena, Montana. The largest segment of the records consists of monthly reports of city officials and committees. In addition there are correspondence/petition files, employee records, financial records, legal documents, specifications, and subject files. The collection contains a petition, signed by 55 African-American voters in 1896, favoring the appointment of Isaac Hayes as a policeman.

Research Center  

MC78 Martha Edgerton Plassmann papers Martha Plassman (1850-1936) was a Montana pioneer, historian, and journalist. The collection consists of her autobiography and over 500 historical articles written for the Great Falls Tribune and the Montana News Association during the 1920s and l930s.The articles, based on her own memories and on research, cover a wide range of topics, especially fur trappers, explorers, and vigilantes. One of her articles, How It Chanced, concerns Black fur trapper Jim Beckwourth.
Research Center MC281 Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, MC 281, 1921-1978 Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs , MC 281, 1921-1978 documents the activities of African-American Montana women's clubs on both an individual basis & the statewide organization; contains records associated with individual women's clubs in Billings (Phyllis Wheatley Club), Butte (Pearl Club), Great Falls (Dunbar Art & Study Club), & Helena, (Pleasant Hour Club). A 1922 booklet containing the proceedings of the statewide club's first session, 1921, at Schaffer AME Chapel (Butte) & the second,1922, at St. James AME Church (Helena) contains group photographs (some with member identification) of the clubs noted above as well as those of Kalispell Mutual Improvement Club, Clover Leaf Art Club (Butte), Sweet Pea Study Club (Bozeman), Good Word Club (Anaconda).
Research Center MC55a Charles Benton Power papers Charles Benton Power papers, MC55a, Box 8folder 9 with articles and correspondence between Power & Arthur C. Ford (1892?-1985), the son of Nathaniel Ford, Power's Black coachman. Born in Washington, DC & reared in Helena, MT, Ford graduated from Helena High School & completed an engineering degree at Montana State College, Bozeman in 1917. He began working for the City of New York in 1924 & rose through city government ranks becoming the "first black to be appointed commissioner of a city agency" as president of the City's Department of Water Supply, Gas & Electricity in 1954.
MicroB-901 "The New Age" (Butte) African-American newspaper African-American weekly published by the New Age Publishing. Co, 220 South Idaho, Butte, Phone 862-B. Editors were John W. Duncan, Smith & Chris Dorsey, white essayist Nora E. Hulings Siegel of Denver is a very frequent contributor.
Research Center MicroH-525 "The Colored Citizen" (Helena) African-American newspaper An African-American weekly published by the Colored Citizen Pub. Co., Helena, by J.P. Ball, Jr., the daguerreotypist photographer's son. The newspaper was "devoted to the interests of Colored Americans" & was anti-Democrat & pro-Helena as the city competed against Anaconda to be state capital.
Research Center MicroH-658 "Montana Plaindealer" (Helena) African-American newspaper African-American (irregular) weekly published by J.B. Bass, Helena; had a roundup of "race news" on the front page as well as News of the World & News of the Northwest on inside pages. Bass, a Republican, reports on an extraordinarily wide range of local & state topics, occasionally taking the opportunity to chide "our people" for their high attendance at minstrel shows & taking less "interest in their race enterprises..." The newspaper also covers society & church news, business (including mining) enterprises, & expands its coverage to Butte & other towns & cities in Montana. Photographs of individual Black Montanans as well as the private Manhattan Club, the Helena Independent's obsession with the Zanzibar bar & its owner, coverage of Helena Republican politics, etc.
Research Center OH124 Montana History Conference Proceedings 1976 Handwritten summary of Tape 3 Side 1 of 1976 Montana History Conference session on "ethnic immigration", white Professor Glen R. Barth (1926-2004) discusses "his experience as chairman of the Black Studies Review Committee at the University of Montana where he attempted to assess the university's needs & obligations vis-à-vis Black studies. Conclusions reached by the committee included efforts to increase the number of Black teachers & students at the University of Montana. Minority committee report played down importance of importing Blacks to a state that did and does not have a large Black population & suggested that Black Study courses lacks academic content. Minority rejected majority position that race be a criteria for scholarship & appointing faculty. Faculty Senate accepted majority report however Black studies program was never funded."

Research Center

OH1278 Genevieve Squires Adair interview Three page summary of interview with Genevieve Squires Adair (1911-1999) who discusses her family and growing up in Plainview, Nebraska; relocating to Butte, Montana, in l916; attending the Normal College in Dillon; her enlistment in the Women's Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC) in l943; officers training; work classifying female recruits at Fort Des Moines WAAC training center; transfer to Fort Meade, Maryland; Black military personnel at Fort Meade and the lack of discrimination; pay scale; nursing at Warm Springs State Hospital; and life after military service.
  OH1280 Eldora McBride interview Transcript of interview with white veteran Eldora McBride (b. 1923), Helena, MT, describes her enlistment in the US Navy in 1944, "[horror of other white girls] at the thought of sleeping in the same area as a colored girl...", Blacks in Helena "had to have their hair cut behind curtains...", & mistakenly sitting in the back of a bus in Washington DC, not realizing "...that was the section just for the colored people..."
Research Center OH262 Charles McDonald interview Typed summary of interview with Charles D. McDonald, Kootenai, 1897-1995. Notes Indians were treated "like the colored guy in the South." Describes various experiences with "colored kids" from Tennessee & Kentucky in early 1930s in northwest MT forests & the CCC, how some pack mules were scared by "colored kids", helping one "kid" to open his can of fruit & mailing letters for him, negative attitudes others had toward Blacks, especially in firefighting. "Every one of those kids packed a Bible but [they were] awfully suspicious kids. Everything scared them in the woods, ‘course they'd never been on anything like that...", toughness of Chicago "kids" leads to their being shipped out. Describes appearances of the "kids" & personalities & his fondness for them.
Research Center OH339 Carolyn Reynolds Riebeth interview Typed summary of interview with (white) Carolyn Reynolds Riebeth (1898-1992) whose family lived at Crow Agency, MT. Describes "Smoky" (Charles Wilson), born into slavery around 1855, worked with horses at Crow Agency, married to Indian, his funeral.
Research Center OH411 Frank Zogarts interview Typed summary of interview with Austrian-American Frank Zogarts (1899-1986) who worked as a foreman at the Anaconda Company smelter in Anaconda from the 1920s-1950s. Describes Black workers at smelter and their jobs which were ones the white workers did not want. Explains segregation at smelter was due to whites not wanting to work with them.
Research Center OH417 Hugo Kenck & Margaret McMann Kenck interview Typed summary of interview with German-American Hugo Kenck (1892-1985) & Margaret McMann Kenck (1907-1989) on music teachers, groups & performers in Butte from 1900-1940. Hugo and Margaret describe Bob Logan [Robert Canada Logan], their Black friend with exceptional singing ability declining an invitation to sing at the Silver Bow Club annual meeting as his wife/accompanist would be denied admittance, white Presbyterian minister's wife telling Mrs. Logan she had to go to the "colored" church & not the former, wearing his "old [Lew] Dockstader Minstrels" coat to dinner at their house, studied with the director of the Mormon Tabernacle Choir Blacks not welcome at Gamer's restaurant, & name-calling "if you had too much to do with the Negroes."
Research Center OH483 Walter Duncan, Perdita Duncan, Elmo Fortune, William Fenter interview Typed summary of interview with Walter Duncan, Perdita Duncan, Elmo Fortune, William Fenter of Butte's African-American community. Families discussed include the Flaggs, Browns, Fortunes, Duncans, & Fenters; Homestake community, boarding houses, exceptions to Blacks working in Butte mines (i.e., Brown brothers), employers of Blacks (ACM Club, construction, private homes, Butte as railroad terminus), Black businesses (Silver Dollar saloon, Duncan medical practice, Silver City Club, Missouri Club, & Finley's). Also discussed are various forms of discrimination & integration, churches, and reasons for decline of black & white populations in Butte in the late 1930s.
Research Center OH934 Eugene Cox interview Typed summary of interview with Eugene Cox (1908-1989), Great Falls, MT who worked for the Anaconda Company's Great Falls Reduction Dept., 1926-1971. Discusses how smelter in Anaconda hired Blacks to work in the arsenic ("...it didn't hurt them like it did a white person") but Black Eagle smelter did not per instructions from head office in Butte, how "My fellas were coached on just exactly what to say & they wouldn't be breaking any law...and we did that until...'65 or '66..." Describes how "Negro" neighbor, Gene, was "afraid those white guys'll kill" him & didn't show up for work at the wire mill ("a choice place to work"), resulting in conversation with wire mill superintendent & foremen to get neighbor to work safely. Believes workers work better together if they all have the same ethnic background, "...if all blacks..." or North Dakotans. "There never was too many that wanted to work out there. Once in a while a [Malmstrom Air Force] Base black would take a look at us & last a day or two."

Research Center

OH1388  Mother Amata Dunne interview Mother Amata Dunne discusses her life, including religion and being a nun, and her experiences as a teacher, including teaching Black children.

Research Center

OH1772  Alan M. Thompson public presentation Alan Thompson gave a presentation at the Montana Historical Society on November 19, 1997, on Black cowboys Brooks and Wilson. His paper explores African-American cowboy traditions on the northern range by discussing aspects of the lifestyles of Joe H. Proctor, his daughter Sarah Proctor Beebe, Sam and Adrian Wilson, and Jim Brooks, five individuals who used horsemanship and cowboy skills to make their living in southeastern Montana.

Research Center

OH1812  Mary Duncan Colley interview Twenty-seven page transcript of interview with Mary Duncan Colley (born 1921 & sister of two of the OH483 informants), Colley discusses growing up in Butte, Mont., in the 1930s and 1940s as part of an African American family; her father's work as a podiatrist and as editor of New Age, an African American newspaper in Butte; her mother's volunteer work including membership in the Montana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs; her parents' hosting students of color from Montana School of Mines in Butte; how her community sheltered her from racism; differences between her experiences with race and that of her brothers and sisters; making transition from all-white culture of Butte to an all-black women's college; and her views on why the African American community dwindled in the years following World War II.

Research Center

OH412  Albert J. Clark interview Five page summary of interview with Albert Clark (1912-1990) who discusses welding and other work for the Anaconda Copper Mining Company smelter in Anaconda, Montana, from 1928 to the 1960s. He also describes an Opportunity, Montana, area ranch leased from the Anaconda Company, the depression years of the l930s, and his participation in the International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers. Clark talks about the Black air line workers in the smelter and how they got the dirtiest jobs. He also discusses how Blacks and whites worked together, how the Austrian foremen were hard on the Black workers, and how the Company laid off Blacks to create jobs for white workers.
Research Center SC1981 Manhattan Club (Helena) Records, 1905-1912 Manhattan Club (Helena) Records, SC1981, comprised of two 1905-1912 books: one, a paper-covered "Manhattan Club, For Members & Visitors" register; the second, a bound ledger documenting members' charges & payments, near end of volume is listing of club's purchases of "segars" [sic] & alcohol. An African-American men's social club, the Manhattan Club was in existence in 1895 & subsequently 1903-1911 according to city directory listings.
Research Center SC2131 Virginia City Water Company Records, 1902-1931 Virginia City Water Company Records, SC 2131, managed by African-American Sarah (Sallie) Gammon Brown Bickford (Mrs. Stephen E. Bickford), from 1902-1931. The company provided the city's industrial & domestic water supply & maintained the water distribution system.
Research Center MC150 Emmanuel Taylor Gordon papers MC150, 1881-1980 Emmanuel Taylor Gordon (1883-1971) was a Black tenor and author who grew up in White Sulphur Springs, Montana; collection (1882-1980) includes letters, writings, financial records, and clippings for Taylor; his sister Rose Gordon, a White Sulphur Springs business woman and physical therapist; and other members of the Gordon family; the Florence Mining Company; and the Democratic party in Montana. [Photographs, artifacts, and publications (including maps and music) transferred to the Photograph Archives, Museum, and Library respectively.] After leaving Montana, Gordon gained fame for his performance of spirituals with baritone/pianist J. Rosamond Johnson thereby advancing critical appreciation of spirituals as an art form, participated in the Harlem Renaissance, & later wrote a best-selling memoir, Born to Be, detailing his Montana boyhood.
SC313 Second Baptist Church cash journal Hardbound gray fabric covered journal with handwritten title: "Treasurer Book Second Baptist Church Helena Mont.", inside are entries for collections, operating expenses, building fund, excavation expenses, etc.  
SC354 Joseph Aiken records This collection consists of a bill of sale, August 25, 1858, transferring ownership of a seven-year-old Black slave from Thomas F. Smith to Joseph and Priscilla Aiken, pioneer Montana Territory residents. The transaction took place at Independence, Missouri.  

Research Center

SC1584  Dutrieuille Family papers The Dutrieuille family was a pioneer Black family that lived in Helena, Belt, and Great Falls, Montana. The collection is primarily related to John Lambert Duke Dutrieuille, a barber, and his wife, Maria Adams Dutrieuille. Included are photocopies of a newspaper editorial, dated September 25, 1892, that Dutrieuille wrote explaining his conversion to the Democratic Party; a letter, dated March 15, 1857, of recommendation from a barber school in Philadelphia; and miscellaneous biographical materials concerning the family. No inventory is available for this collection.

Research Center

SC785  Mary Stephenson records This collection consists of manumission papers (July 20, 1817) by Mary Stephenson, of Harrison County, Kentucky, freeing her slave Polly and her four year old child.

Research Center

SC808  John W. Haskins records John W. Haskins was a Buckingham County, Virginia, resident and slave owner. This collection contains a receipt (1853) for the purchase by John W. Haskins of a black man; a promissory note (1850) requiring John W. Haskins to pay Betsy Taylor $65 to hire a black man for one year; and a notice (1827) for the sale of "Land, Negroes, Stock, &c." owned by W.J. Barksdale.

Research Center

SC938  David Kirkpatrick Deed Of Trust David Kirkpatrick was a Somerset, Kentucky, slave owner. This collection consists of a handwritten deed of trust, dated September 20, 1821, placing a seven-year-old Black slave named Lewis as security for a loan made by Fielding Kenley to David Kirkpatrick.

Research Center

SC946  Edwin W. Knight letters Edwin W. Knight (born 1838) served as chairman of the Helena, Montana Territory, school board. The collection consists of a photocopy of a letter, February 1882, from Knight to the U.S. attorney general requesting a decision on the constitutionality of a Helena law requiring separate schools for Black children. There also are photocopies of Martin Maginnis' letter of transmittal and the attorney general's reply declining to rule on the law. The photocopies were made for the originals in the National Archives.

Research Center

SC1989  Community Council of Cascade County records The Community Council of Cascade County, Montana, developed from the American Association of University Women's Great Falls Branch Social Studies Committee. It was organized to promote cooperation between various groups working for social change in Cascade County. Records consist of general correspondence, minutes and bylaws, constitutions, membership lists, reports, and subject files. The Council had a Negro Affairs Committee, later the inter-racial Committee, which was to receive for study and recommendation all matters pertaining to inter-racial programs which may be presented before the Council; and to bring to the attention of the Council matters of inter-racial importance. In 1954-55, the Council reviewed the presented plans to make the public aware of House Bill 52, regarding Negro acceptance in public places.
SHPO 24CA0970 "Union Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church" NRHP registration form National Register of Historic Places nomination file for Union Bethel African Methodist Episcopal church (aka African Methodist Episcopal Church), 916 Fifth Avenue South, Great Falls, MT includes narrative description of Great Falls town site, church building's neighborhood orientation, church building's appearance, & integrity. Narrative statement of significance includes its eligibility under Criterion A for its "representation of the African American community in Great Falls" & Criterion C "...as a representation of ecclesiastical Gothic Revival architecture typical" of early 20th century MT.
SHPO 24CA826 "Belt Commercial Historic District" NRHP registration form National Register of Historic Places nomination file for Belt Commercial Historic District (aka 24CA826) includes a narrative description of the development of the built environment within the Belt Commercial Historic District, resource descriptions [individual buildings and streetscapes] and photocopied photographs, & the integrity of the historic district. The narrative statement of significance documents the district's eligibility under Criterion A & C. "It is representative of 3 major periods of development for the community: the transition from a small mining camp to a permanent town during the late 1890s; expansion of the community through the 1910s & a resurgence in prosperity after WWII." qualify it under Criterion A. The district is eligible under Criterion C "as an excellent & largely intact example of late 19th & early 20th century commercial architecture." The narrative is also comprised of an introduction, description of the founding & development of Belt which details the roles of John Castner & his African-American wife, Mattie Castner; the architectural significance (commercial design, stone buildings in central MT, Western commercial architecture, & bank architecture in MT. Also included are bibliographic references, geographical data, form preparation information, 1927 Sanborn map of Belt commercial historic district, photocopies of photographs of streetscapes, & topo map.
SHPO 24GA1502 "Samuel Lewis House" NRHP registration form National Register of Historic Places nomination file for Samuel Lewis House, 308 Bozeman Avenue, Bozeman, MT, aka 24GA1502, includes narrative description of original 1881 house's architecture, 1889 remodeling, interior features, integrity. Narrative statement of significance includes its eligibility under Criterion A-C for its "association with Bozeman's steady economic & demographic evolution during its 1873-1883 Village Phase of development; Criterion B for "its association with Samuel W. Lewis, the most prosperous & influential member of a small African-American population in early Bozeman"; & Criterion C "as an unusual example of an Early Classical Revival Style gable-front-and-wings house remodeled into an outstanding example of the Queen Anne Style with Eastlake decorative details.
SHPO 24GN0195 "Morgan-Case Homestead" NRHP registration form National Register of Historic Places nomination file for the Morgan-Case Homestead is eligible for its significance under Criterion A, for its associative and representative value as an excellent example of the small subsistence homesteads established in the intermountain valleys of western Montana. "The first occupant of record of the Morgan-Case Homestead Historic District was Annie (Agnes) Morgan, an African-American woman who, at age 44, came to Montana as a cook for General Custer in 1876. Morgan left Custer's service sometime before the battle of the Little Bighorn and made her way to Philipsburg. While there, she was hired by Granite County Attorney Durfee to "take a liquor-loving uncle who drank too much to a cabin on Rock Creek and care for him." Located on an abandoned fox farm in the vicinity of her eventual claim, the two-room cabin became Morgan's home after Durfee's uncle moved on. Joseph "Fisher Jack" Case met Annie Morgan in 1894. According to local history accounts, Morgan encountered Case by the banks of Rock Creek, where he lay stricken with typhoid fever. Morgan nursed Case, a Civil War veteran originally from New Jersey, and upon regaining his health he stayed on to fence her claim as payment for her services. Formerly a teamster for various Philipsburg mines and for a "Government Survey Party," Case had been making a living by catching fish on Rock Creek and selling them in Granite and was known to locals as "Fisher Jack." In the course of Case's convalescence the two apparently developed a mutual affection, for after Case completed the fence he moved in permanently and the couple lived together until Morgan's death twenty years later.

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